Procedure adopted for designs of framed structures
Our work starts with the study of architectural designs and owner requirements. Best possible and most appropriate alternative are planned for a particular project incorporating architectural systems and engineering services. We suggest various structural, engineering and cost effective alternatives. Clear-cut Structural designs are prepared with complete engineering details.
In response to the varied needs of the client and genuine difficulties during execution of the project; immediate, thoughtful and technically correct continuous review of designs are presented
Structural arrangement Planning
Structural arrangement planning consists of Layout of columns and fixation of grid lines, Tentative column sizes depending on loadings and span, Expansion joints at 45 meter interval or at change in shape/size of building, Layout of beams at different floors, tentative beam sizes depending on loadings and span, Layout, level and thickness of slab panels, Toilet slabs depressed for 300 to 500 mm, Overhead water tank, lift m/c room and ducts and Major architectural façade.
A space frame Geometric Model is formulated by marking Joints and member numbers, specifying height, span, member sizes, material properties and end conditions.
Dead load from floor panels, walls and structural elements; live load over floors, Impact load from mechanical installations; Load from overhead water tanks, Wind Loads, Seismic Load are summarized and incorporated.
Analysis of structure is performed
Analysis is of structure performed for the loadings and their desired combinations to compute translations and rotation; joint forces, forces at various cross sections of different element of frame and along with designs of beams and columns.
Review and Final Designs
Final Analysis and Designs is carried out review of structural arrangement, column-beam sizes and loadings. Designs of floor panels, secondary elements are prepared for their final detailing.
Column loads for different combinations are sum up of at foundation level and foundation designs are prepared, compared and selected by working out different proposals with alternative types based on sub surface investigation information and probable costs.
Concrete in itself is a brittle material. An overall ductile behavior of structure is achieved through proper bar detailing of R.C.C Columns and Beams taking in account for their different end conditions, minimum requirements of steel, cover to reinforcements, their curtailments, Lapping and Anchorages of bars, forces developed and deflection. Layout of reinforcements in one way & two way R.C.C. slabs, bars at opening are prepared. Joint and member detailing are prepared for steel structures.
Design of Load bearing masonry wall structure
These structures require special attention regarding differential settlement of Foundation systems. Strength of Bricks used for masonry needs to be sufficiently strong to sustain the load coming on the wall from super structure. Dead Loads and Live Loads over the wall of unit length is computed and then the wall is designed to sustain these loads. Similarly, R.C.C. Roofs will be designed for their edge conditions as per relevant IS Codes. The provisions to resist seismic forces will be made as per the National Building Code of India.
The type and choice of Foundations for various types of structures largely depend upon the subsurface condition, stratification, soil characteristics, nature and type of load and the structural arrangements of the buildings.
In load bearing wall type of structure either shallow strip or stepped foundations or a series of closely spaced short under reamed cast in situ piles connected with capping beams will be opted depending upon the nature of soil strata below walls. Assessment of differential settlement and layout of foundations are done before deciding the geometric section of foundation.
RCC frame structures are generally provided with Isolated Footings, Combined Footing or a group of Piles connected with Pile Cap depending on the resistance of underlying subsurface strata. Bearing capacity, settlement and soil stratification are key factors.